Nutrient Deficiencies in Urban Women
There can be many reasons why women develop nutrient deficiencies - improper diets, hectic schedules, and even lack of knowledge about what consist a healthy diet for women. A balanced and a healthy diet for women can help them tackle the common nutrient deficiencies easily.
Let’s get to know common deficiencies and how to manage them through a healthy diet.
Iron deficiency: Iron is a trace element. It’s the largest component of red blood cells and binds with haemoglobin and transports oxygen to the cells. Iron deficiency is very common especially in women due to menstruation. It is also common amongst vegetarians. It may cause anaemia, fatigue, weakened immune system, light headedness, dizziness, headaches and impaired brain function. Signs like skin pallor, pale conjunctiva and thin concave nails with raised edges.
The food sources of iron are: red meat, shellfish, rajma, dals, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, cashews and dark leafy greens such as paalak (spinach). Animal sources provide the most bioavailable iron. Plant sources are more difficult to break down to be used. Adding vitamin C foods alongside with iron rich foods can enhance iron absorption for example adding lime to iron rich foods.
Vitamin D deficiency: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin. It is called the sunshine vitamin and is essential for overall health ranging from healthy hair, healthy bones and hormone health including fertility. Deficiency symptoms are muscle weakness and bone loss. Vitamin D deficiency contributes to calcium deficiency resulting in an increased risk of fractures. A healthy diet for women comprising of vitamin D rich sources like fatty fish like salmon, mackerel, sardines, egg yolks and natural sunlight would be beneficial. Having said that it would be a good idea to check blood work for vitamin D3 frequently and consume supplements especially if you are a vegetarian.
Calcium deficiency: Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. It mineralizes bone and teeth, is required for intracellular signaling, neurotransmission, muscle contraction, may also have a preventive role in weight management and a protective roll in polycystic ovarian syndrome. The main symptom of calcium deficiency is an increased risk of osteoporosis later in life especially with multiple pregnancies seen in women. The dietary sources of calcium are dairy foods, almonds, beans, dark green vegetables.
Vitamin B12 deficiency: B12 is required for proper neurological function and red blood cell formation. This vitamin is only found in natural form in animal products. Vegetarians and vegans are advised to take B12 supplements. Deficiency is common due to not enough B12 in the diet, inability to absorb B12 due to lack of intrinsic factor responsible for its absorption and particularly in people on acid- blocker medication and people with inflammation in the small bowel. Few deficiency signs are lemon yellow tint to the skin and eyes and smooth, red, thickened tongue. The dietary sources of B12 are salmon, lamb, and eggs.
Protein deficiency: Protein is an important macronutrient also known as building blocks of muscles. Hair, skin and nails are made of protein and most importantly high quality and adequate protein is imperative for the creation of best hormones in the body resulting in better performance, productivity and over all well-being. Signs of deficiency are patchy brown skin on cheeks, atopy and loss of muscle mass. A balanced diet comprising of adequate protein daily would be beneficial. Dietary sources of protein are legumes, eggs, paneer, curd, chicken, fish, nuts and seeds.
Magnesium Deficiency: Magnesium is involved in many enzymatic reactions, is a major constituent of bones and is a part of the cell membranes. Being present in smooth muscles, facilitates the contraction as well as relaxation of muscles and helps to reduce muscle cramps. Signs of deficiency include abnormal heart rhythm, muscle cramps, tremors, restless leg syndrome, fatigue, migraine, tetany and personality changes. The dietary sources of magnesium are beans, nuts and sesame, pumpkin and sunflower seeds.
Iodine Deficiency: Iodine is a trace essential that is necessary for normal thyroid function and the production of thyroid hormones. Deficiency can impair fetal and childhood growth. The most common symptom of iodine deficiency is an enlarged thyroid gland known as goitre. The dietary sources of iodine are strawberries, eggs, fish, dairy and baked potatoes which include skin. The easiest way to ensure that you have sufficient iodine in your diet is to use iodized salt such Tata Salt in your meals daily.
If you are concerned about having a particular deficiency, do consult your health care professional. With the right dietary changes and supplements, deficiencies can be managed and eliminated entirely.
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